So, producing food requires a pre-planned process, and it is a known fact in our clime that the quantity of food produced or cultivated during the rainy or wet season is significantly higher compared to the dry season. This has been age-long practice where smallholder farmers are attuned to cultivate or produce more crops due to abundance of rainfall, which is a source of water for the crops. However, in recent times the climate change crisis has affected the pattern of rainfall and in some cases, drought has been experienced affecting the quantity of food produced. Many smallholder farmers have been adversely affected and discouraged to produce food, cutting down their production capacity as a result of this uncertainty.

Therefore, it is paramount that an alternative source of water should be established. For smallholder farmers who have access to dam water and other alternative sources of water, distribution of water on the farm is still a major issue, and the current practices adopted have encouraged the use of too much water, which is not cost effective and encourages water wastage. Moreover, drip has not been widely adopted due to its high cost of installation and maintenance, it can only be used for high valued crops (as the return on investment is economically feasible). So, there is an urgent need to identify water saving practices or equipment that can be adopted for smallholder farmers, at an affordable cost, environmental friendly and simple to be used.

Water is an important asset to food production, and sustainable usage of water for food production should be critical to agricultural stakeholders, and it starts from primary production. Farmers need to be efficient in using natural resources to increase productivity. Importantly, water used for irrigation needs to be managed efficiently to avoid water wastage at the farm level. Thus, the appropriate technology that achieves that aim needs to be affordable, adaptable and economically viable in order to achieve food security.