Sadly, most of the food produced by these smallholder farmers are produced on a small acreage of land, largely dependent on manual labour and simple manual tools, local knowledge and inputs (especially seeds) used, low productivity achieved in terms of yield, high adoption of low technology for storage (whereas post harvest losses are still high depending on the perishable nature of the produce) and value addition to produce is extremely low (where possible drying of produce is the most preferred means for selected produce). This is a typical life and reality of any smallholder farmer. The only motivation available for such smallholder farmers is that it is the only means to survive!

In essence, a smallholder farmer only adopts low-technology practices (and many times, obsolete) that are accessible and affordable to them instead of improved practices or technology that are expensive and unaffordable although it would help to increase productivity. That is why smallholding farming is linked with low productivity and low efficiency within the production activities. Therefore, the resulting effect from low productivity is low revenue, which has a negative impact on future expansion and could alter their livelihood. So, the reality of many smallholder farmers is that they hardly meet their daily monetary needs as their potential is being limited due to their low productivity. Thus, the reason for living in poverty (This is a state, which is transitioning though and according to the World Bank poverty is measured as the number of people living on less than $1.90 per day (monetary terms). In addition, multidimensional poverty included access to educational and infrastructural services as key components).

Therefore, it is important to set the record straight that smallholder farmers are perceived to be poor not because of the scale of their production rather the inefficiency that exists within their activities which result in low productivity and low quality, and thus affect their livelihood adversely. As much as smallholder farmers put in the efforts (physical and emotional) in primary production, there is a need to put in the business skills that ensure that inefficiencies within production activities are well identified and properly managed to achieve high produce quality, coupled with good marketing strategies and produce diversification (and more value addition to produce).